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There have been numbers of faithful preachers of righteousness who devoted their lives to witness in a public way from the time of the Apostles,  but some  were outstanding down through church history  as faithful defenders of the faith,  who labored to restore the truth of God's Word.  This restoration work began in earnest as papal Rome asserted greater control and oppression of the people.  With the in-creasing suppression  of the truth  by the Roman Catholic Religion (circa 500 AD), God began to raise up chosen saints to revive the gospel message, and by 1800 AD --church truth.  They had personal failures, as do all servants, but they had zeal and sought to do the work of the Lord. They often paid a great price to honor Him. The more notable men are mentioned here from A Brief Synopsis Of The Public History Of The Church, by G.H.S. Price;  and some comments are also added.
 - Compiled by R. L. DeWitt, 9/03; rev. 6/05

Peter Waldo (circa 1100 AD) - denounced the papal system and the corruption in that religion,  and preached the gospel clearly and also translated it into the common language.  He spent most of his  last days in preaching and hiding from his persecutors.

John Wycliffe (c. 1300 AD) - preached the gospel boldly in England, and denounced the RC religion and the Pope, and held to the Word of God as  the only authority.  He was a scholar  and greatly honored, and respected throughout Europe. He translated the Bible into a language for the people.  His opposition to the Pope and the religion of Rome spread widely,  and resulted in his persecution and many attempts to kill him.  He died in relative peace from a stroke.

John Huss  (c. 1400 AD) -  a martyr  in Bohemia  who was burned to death by papal authority for his stand on the Word of God only,  and his faithful preaching to many in those parts.

Martin Luther (c. 1500 AD) - a RC priest and the principle agent in the protestant reformation movement,  who protested loudly directly toward the Pope, and printed a detailed  list of charges  against  the papal  system and practices.  His theme was "justification by faith"  rather than the religion of Rome,  and he traveled around Europe  preaching everywhere.  Having taught the Scriptures as a University professor and priest, he learned the truth of the Word.  At first he sought to reform the RC religion, but soon realized that would not happen.  His great zeal and prominence was used of God  to propagate the gospel truth, especially with  the development  of printing. The RCC sought often to kill him,  but God preserved him, and he ended his days in seclusion and translating of  the Bible in 1546.

Ulrich Zwingle (c. 1500 AD) - was a RC priest in Switzerland,  who had his eyes opened to the truth of the Bible, and he boldly preached the Word.  He proclaimed that all religious observances not found in the Word of God should be abolished.  He denounced all religious authority that was written or invented  since the  days of the  Apostles.  He reportedly became  involved in politics and was a chaplain in the army fighting against RC forces, and was killed in battle.

John Calvin (c. 1500 AD) - He was a bold preacher of the gospel, and was so strong in his  condemnation of Rome  that he was considered by the RC religion  to be more dangerous than Luther.  He was in poor 
health and lived a short life.

William Tyndale (c. 1500 AD) - Like many other reformers  he opposed the Pope publicly  and received  excommunication  and persecutions, but his work was  mostly quiet writings and a good translation of the Bible together with Miles Coverdale.  This was  well-received  everywhere.  He was martyred at an early age. 

John & Charles Wesley (c. 1700 AD) - They began to preach personal piety  and strictness in one's life,  and were called Methodists by many. John's simple message of the gospel truth  was not well accepted by the religious establishment of leading Christian gatherings, which were spreading everywhere, so he began preaching in the streets.  Charles wrote many hymns which were a significant testimony.

John Darby (c. 1800 AD) - In the early 1800's John N. Darby, who was a scholar of some renown in Ireland, and a barrister, was converted by reading the Holy Scriptures.  In time he became a priest in the 
Church of Ireland.  God led him to see that Christ is the Head of the church, and there is a spiritual body on earth.  He saw Christ as the gathering center, rather than religious sects and systems; and he saw the priesthood of believers in the "body of Christ" and the leading of the Holy Spirit, rather than the hierarchy of men, dogma, rituals, and innovations.  He separated from ecclesiastical associations and human order, and began to meet with three others of the same persuasion in 1827 in accord with the plain scriptural order.  Others also began to embrace this thinking,  and Darby traveled about preaching in many places and writing much on church truth.  This revival spread rapidly worldwide.  Much has been written about this  so-called "brethren movement" and the ministry of those early brethren which is available today.  Besides Darby, who seems to have been a principle agent in this revival of church truth,  some of his contemporaries were J.G. Bellet, G.V. Wigram,  W. Kelly,  C.H. Mackintosh,  and a few other  less notable teachers.  There have been divisions,  and all assemblies have not continued  in the same universal fellowship, which Darby held was essential.  He departed  to be with Christ in 1882. 


The writing by G.H.S. Price, as stated above, is a good brief overview of the history, and is obtainable from Bible Truth Publishers, P.O. Box 649, Addison, IL 60101, USA.   The ministry of Darby and those associated with "the brethren movement"  is also available at the same address.  Readers  are urged  to  ask   also about local Assemblies and sound ministry and Church history.  - RLD 


Paper adapted to avoid names and for ministry
Dear _________:

   That is a good question regarding the "one body" of Christ during the "Dark Ages".  While the "one body", being all believers in the world, has existed, it was not shown forth in unity by believers.  I understand that after the apostolic times, unity in church truth was lost and faithful saints of God were found mostly as individuals meeting in homes, and often without guidance in the Holy Scripture.  There was no clear expression of the body of Christ. The scriptural translations were hand-written and not available outside the organized Christian religion until printing was developed in the 1500's.  Most people were also not literate in those days.  Most ministry was verbal and concerned redemption and not church truth.

   The various large gatherings of mostly religious followers became organized around a hierarchy, with their overseers (bishops) assuming more influence.  Prominent men soon gained control and began to Judaize the church, and persecution pressed hard against those who resisted the rising centralized religious authority.  This is a danger also today.

   The gospel message was for a long time only spoken in small gatherings in homes and secretly elsewhere during the Middle Ages, in fear of the authorities and later the papacy of the Roman Catholic Religion (RCR), which banned all testimony not in accord with their religion.  The body of Christ (true universal church) has existed since the time of Pentecost (see Acts 2:41-47 and Epistles),  yet it was often in secret.  One can read more on this in other papers in the Christian Counsel Collection.

   Average people were mostly uneducated, and the holy parchments (Bible) were in possession of the RCR (which was essentially the government across the land --circa 500 to 1500 A.D.).  They had their religious police with power to arrest any not in allegiance to that religion.  One used to be able to read about this in books in college on the Middle Ages, but not much anymore because it is considered not "politically nice" to the Roman Catholic Religion.  One can only learn of this at certain Bible distributors.  See Foxe's Book of Martyrs, Miller's Church History, and the history of John Bunyon, etc. at Bible Truth Publishers, Addison, IL - USA.

   In the period of 1000 to 1500 AD some faithful and bold saints began to preach the gospel openly in God's revival of redemption (Martin Luther was a principal among them), and the so-called "Reformation" began.  The preachers among this movement were often imprisoned and persecuted even unto death.  You can read more on this in some papers on history. 

   By 1800 A.D., when printing evolved more and the Bible was circulated broadly, greater study allowed God to raise up a second revival --recovery of church truth.  I will send you some papers on this, which will speak of the scriptural foundation God intended from the beginning.

   This is just a brief response for your interest, but we can discuss it further later.  Look up always!  
 -  Ever yours in Christ,  --RLD.     

- A Commentary On History
- Some Thoughts On The Brethren
See also a Testimony at Site Manager  Page 
Some History & Heresy 
On The Christian Pathway
An adaptation of the paper: Church Condition In A Brief Historical Outline  - By R. DeWitt, 1980  

There are decisions to be made as a new believer walks the Christian pathway through this world, and more so in this present day with so many voices and new sects being formed every year. The decisions are about following the Word of God, or reasoning in our own mind and our own choices.

In the beginning of Church testimony, believers in Christ continued steadfastly in truth and with one accord (Acts 2:41-47; Rom. 16:16). The apostles taught them and admonished them, but there began to be a falling away (Rom.16:17-18). When the apostles departed, many Christians embraced human innovations and much of Jewish traditions, and there was generally little regard for the counsels of God (II Tim.4:1-8).  

About 500 A.D.+ continued disregard by Christians for sound doctrine (Titus 1:9), not continuing in the Spirit (Gal.3:1-3), and allowing "leaven" (I Cor.5), gave rise to false teachers and more ritualism; then in time the Roman Catholic Religion (RCR) arose with popery and with hierarchy, ceremonies, and wickedness. In those Middle Ages --500 AD to circa 1500 AD, true believers were scattered, and the faithful ones could only meet in secret because of the terrible persecutions (Acts 20:29). At that time the written Word of God was not available to all.

About 1500 A.D.+ God revived the gospel message widely, after isolated attempts by faithful servants to preach the message in many places from about 1000 A.D. Man's "reform" brought forth denominationalism with continued hierarchy, rituals, and inventions patterned after the RC religion, but new boldness in the gospel---though facing persecutions and slaughter of faithful saints by the religionists. Martin Luther ---an RC priest, became a prominent protester against the Pope and Roman Catholic Religion, and others were then embolden to speak out. Many godly saints rose up and stood for the Lord. There was a protest movement and attempt at reformation, which soon became separation. The Word of God then began to circulate as more copies were made.

About 1800 A.D.+ after the gospel had been spread abroad, God began to call faithful believers out of the denominated sects which had developed in form like the Roman religion, and with exercise to return to His Word and dependence on the Holy Spirit (Matt.18:20). In 1827-28 there were those who came together in homes in Ireland and England in simplicity like the early church, as members of the "one body" (I Cor.1:2; 12:12), to just continue "steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers" (Acts 2:42). They recognized the priesthood of believers (I Pet.2:5-10). This was a new work and revival by the Spirit and much sound ministry was written, which is available today. A lovely fellowship prevailed. The movement was blessed and spread rapidly to revive precious truth worldwide.

Original brothers among them were J.N.Darby, Edward Cronin, William Hutchinson, and J.G.Bellett. Later, William Kelly, G.V.Wigram, C.H.Mackintosh, and other capable students of the Word became associated with this "brethren movement", as it was called.

Satan hated this new work of God and soon raised up the flesh. An independent spirit came forth. Some brethren arose "speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them" (as Acts 20:30). A number of saints went out to form new and compromise gatherings back with various religious systems. A faithful testimony continued, however, in spite of the falling away.

"Fundamentalism" then arose among the denom-inational sects from the "reformation" time seeking to preserve the gospel there. It also preserved man-made traditions. A so-called "Pentecostal" system came out of that, which denied the eternal security of believers and promoted signs and emotional experiences. Satan also began to raise up many wicked Christ rejecting systems, cults, and religions to imitate and confuse (II Cor.11:13-15).

In the present day the saints are quite scattered. Major denominational sects are now amalgamating. The Christian "fundamental" sects are overlooking differences and merging together. Some Christians shun any order and are seeking to have an experience as a "free-spirit". There remains, however, that testimony that God raised up in the early 1800's --expressing the "one body" worldwide in the scriptural order, gathering to the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ alone, and waiting upon the Holy Spirit. They recognize the ruin in the church is to our collective shame, and are not occupied with forbidding the unions and popular ways (Mark 9:38); rather, they continue in the path, desire the honor and glory of the Lord, and "all the counsel of God"    (Acts 20:27). 
Though weak in numbers they are holding fast "Till He comes". Does the reader know about this? One should also read the History, and Foxe's Book Of Martyrs (see the sources below).​

Choices for the saints today are many, if one approves of sectarianism. They can find liberal church groups, conservative groups, political and social groups, all kinds of entertainment and religious ideas; or they can seek the scriptural path and recognize that God has maintained his testimony from that revival of the 1800's. Even within that good revival there are splinter groups following after men and certain doctrines. We are all failures in obeying and following our Lord, but we ought not to fault God and dishonor Him for our failure.

One might decide it is hopeless and just stay home and read their Bible, but God exhorts us to not forsake the assembling of ourselves together (Heb.10:25). He has a path in unity, though there is always failure among men.  See this G-R-E-A-T-W-A-Y:

a) Gathering to the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ alone (Matt.18:20), not to popular personalities, which usurp the Lord, and sectarian systems---limiting other believers who want to hold to the Word of God.  

b) Receiving "all the counsel of God" (Acts 20:27), "rightly dividing the Word of truth" (II Tim.2:15), not traditions, entertainment, creeds, rituals, and pledges; programs, religious ideas, emotional experiences, and unscriptural things which are for the flesh.  

c) Expressing the oneness of the body of Christ in the world (Rom.12:5; I Cor.12:25), not independency, nor mergers and unions, organizational membership, etc., which is the deceit of Satan to divide the saints and compromise the truth.  

d) Acknowledging the priesthood of believers (I Pet.2:5,9), not titles, offices, hierarchy, dominion over the saints with selected ministers to lead, preach, and manage ("nicolaitanism", Rev.2:6), etc., which denies liberty.  

e) Trusting the Lord and His Word as the only authority and path for the Christian faith, rather than man's preferences or reasonings, which will lead one astray. 

f) Worshipping collectively as is pleasing to God, rather than innovations for the flesh, which is pride and entertainment.

g) Appreciating the assembly and maintaining God's order and government, rather than the governmental ways of men, which is unprofitable.

h) Yielding to the leading of the Holy Spirit as in the early church (II Cor.3:17), not to ceremonies, schedules, plans, arrangements quenching the Spirit (I Thess.5:19), which dishonors God.

If we cannot hold these things we will fall into Satan's snare, and always divide and scatter the saints and dishonor our Lord. God never intended that individual saints should act independent of the church and His order and government there. There needs to be unity. Even among Israel, they had to learn to bow to God in the midst. If they had a difference with others and ignored the "cloud above and the pillar of fire by night" provided, they might go off into the wilderness and set up their own form of worship, but the cloud and the pillar would not follow them. God has a gathering center also today.

The writer would be pleased to answer questions about this at aninterface@hotmail.com; and recommends seekers see also Bible Truth Publishers, P.O. Box 649, Addison, IL 60101 for Bible history, ministry books, and Christian literature. - RLD: CH03; 1980; add  2020.  

[One can read elsewhere of the origin and formation of God's church testimony (Acts 2 ---noting v. 41-42) and the post-apostolic failure in Christendom, but we speak here of the recovery of that testimony of church truth, often called "the brethren movement" ---1827 AD) which we value. It speaks of all brothers and sisters in the Lord as one "holy" and "royal priesthood" 
- 1 Pet. 2]

The name, 'Plymouth Brethren', is a misnomer concerning that revival of church truth in the early 1800's. Outsiders in England (not connected with the so-called 'brethren movement' and recognizing the rapid growth of it) began referring to these saints of God as Plymouth Brethren because of a large gathering at Plymouth, England. The name seemed to be widely accepted in the world because the early brethren themselves refused to take a name, except what God has given us and what is common to all saints.

For about twenty years the testimony went on generally well from 1827 AD, then Satan began his attacks to cause division. Apart from all the denominational sects (who have their own history of divisions), here are most of the major divisions and systems that formed out of the so-called "brethren movement" and continued, which have also had numerous sub-divisions (not listed here):

   *  Open Brethren (OB) - the sect and principle by which the followers of George Mueller are known (which went off to form independent principles of gathering ---seeking to interact with man's denominated sects);  
   *  KLC Brethren (Kelly-Lowe-Continentals) - a merger of these three division groups, which separately had earlier left the fellowship to follow various ideologies apart from the ground of the revival of circa 1800; 
   *  Grant Brethren - a following of F.W. Grant and his line of ministry;
   *  Raven Brethren - a following of F.E. Raven (now often calling self: 'The Local Church' which holds to strict control of saints' personal lives by the so-called 'anointed elders';
   *  Some other saints also went out from the mainline over time to form their own fellowships, who were smaller gatherings; and, as stated already, many sub-divisions have formed out of all of the major divisions. One can see the papers on notable divisions within the brethren movement by this writer for more information.

Today, many believers within the so-called 'brethren movement' like to hold names. The name: Plymouth Brethren (PB) is usually held by the open and quite loose line of the brethren ---much like the denominated sects. At one time all those not part of the Open movement were called Exclusive Brethren (EB) by the Opens, but in time EB became proudly owned by many of the followers after the man: Raven, who was put away for ungodly teachings about Christ. 

We should note also that some who separated from the denominated sects and appreciated the 'brethren' teachings, refer to themselves as 'independent brethren'. Having little understanding of the movement, they usually mix-in the denominational doctrines. As an example, the Watchman Nee Movement descended from the Raven-Taylor Brethren and began to add Pentecostalism later to their controls of members.  

Some of us have avoided all such designations, and seek to maintain that work of revival as committed to the saints in 1827 AD. It might properly be referred to as the main line from that early time; notwithstanding that we are sometimes called by various titles by some outsiders. We can get associated with names by outsiders who do not recognize that God has in fact maintained that work He recovered in the early 1800's apart from sectarianism ---holding to Bible-only.

Every assembly has a history---we can know. We all must own our failure as members of the "one body" of Christ, but ever seek to go on faithfully in the path of God's good work and not be a part of sectarianism. As the saying goes: 'We should not throw out the baby with the bath water'.

What is the problem with a name or having a separate gathering? It is sectarian because it makes a limited company (sect) out of that which God established as a universal truth in the world ---I Cor. 12:25 (the "one body" of Christ). Faithful saints will not want to take any name that divides them, and which God has not called us. It is His church (assembly) and believers are His, so we ought to follow the Word of God and bow to His government, rather than go off to join or start a new gathering every time we are not pleased about something. Where would Israel have gone if they had left 'the pillar of fire and cloud' that God established for the place of collective worship ---note Ex.13:21-22; Num. 14:4; Deut. 31:15?

Since this subject of God's revival and testimony in the world from 1827, is a large subject with a number of things to consider, this writer will be pleased to correspond with any who desire to inquire and "earnestly contend for the faith"  (Jude 3).
    - By R.L.DeWitt:  CH09; 12/2002; add: 06/2020.